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Educating children at home as an alternative to formal education is an option chosen by families in many parts of the world. The homeschooling movement is popular in the United States, where close to one million Children are educated at home. In Canada, 1 percent of school-age children are homeschooled, and the idea also enjoys growing popularity in Australia, where 20,000 families homeschool their children. The movement is not limited to these countries. Homeschooling families can be found all over the world, from Japan to Taiwan to Argentina to South Africa.
Homeschooling is not a novel idea. In fact, the idea of sending children to spend most of their day away from home at a formal school is a relatively new custom. In the United States, for example, it was not until the latter part of the nineteenth century that state governments began making school attendance compulsory. Before that, the concept of a formal education was not so widespread. Children learned the skills they would need for adult life at home from tutors or their parents, through formal instruction or by working side by side with the adults of the family.
In the modern developed world, where the vast majority of children attend school, families choose homeschooling for a variety of reasons. For people who live in remote areas, such as the Australian outback or the Alaskan Wilderness, homeschooling may be their only option. Children who have exceptional talents in the arts or other areas may be homeschooled so that they have more time to devote to their special interests. Much of the homeschooling movement is made up of families who, for various reasons, are dissatisfied with the schools available to them. They may have a differing educational philosophy, they may be concerned about the safety of the school environment, or they may feel that the local schools cannot adequatelyaddress their children's educational needs. Although most families continue to choose a traditional classroom education for their children, homeschooling as an alternative educational option is becoming more popular.
What does the word "that" in paragraph 2 refer to?
Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the following questions.
Since the early eighties, we have been only too aware of the devastating effects of large-scale environmental pollution. Such pollution is generally the result of poor government planning in many developing nations or the shortsighted, selﬁsh policies of the already industrialized countries, which encourage a minority of the world’s population to squander the majority of its natural resources.
While events such as the deforestation of the Amazon jungle or the nuclear disaster in Chernobyl continue to receive high media exposure, as do acts of environmental sabotage, it must be remembered that not all pollution is on this grand scale. A large proportion of the world's pollution has its source much closer to home. The recent spillage of crude oil from an oil tanker accidentally discharging its cargo straight into Sydney not only caused serious damage to the harbor foreshores but also created severely toxic fumes which hung over the suburbs for days and left the angry residents wondering how such a disaster could have been allowed to happen.
Avoiding pollution can be a fulltime job. Try not to inhale trafﬁc fumes; keep away from Chemical plants and building-sites; wear a mask when cycling. It is enough to make you want to stay at home. But that, according to a growing body of scientific evidence, would also be a bad idea. Research shows that levels of pollutants such as hazardous gases, particulate matter and other chemical 'nasties’ are usually higher indoors than out, even in the most polluted cities. Since the average American spends 18 hours indoors for every hour outside, it looks as though many environmentalists may be attacking the wrong target.
Question 31: The best title for this passage could be _____.
A. the devastating effects of environmental pollution in some areas.
B. indoor pollution in industrialized countries.
C. environmental pollution as a result of poor policies.
D. deforestation of the Amazon jungle.
Question 32: Which statement about Sydney harbor is probably TRUE according to the passage?
A. The Sydney Harbour oil spill was the result of a collision between two oil tankers.
B. The Sydney Harbour oil spill was the result of a deliberate act of sabotage.
C. The Sydney Harbour oil spill was the result of a ship refueling in the harbor.
D. The Sydney Harbour oil spill was the result of a tanker pumping oil into the sea.
Question 33: The word “its” in paragraph 2 refers to _____?
A. an oil tanker B. crude oil C. pollution D. spillage
Question 34: In paragraph 3, the writer suggests that _____.
A. people should avoid working in cities
B. hazardous gases are concentrated in industrial suburbs
C. there are several ways to avoid city pollution
D. Americans spend too little time outdoors
Question 35: The word "nasties" in paragraph 3 means _____.
A. dangerous B. kind C. composition D. dirty